Dr. Mithila Jugulam
Biography & Education
Mithila originally comes from India where she obtained her B.S and M.S degrees in Agriculture. She then worked as an ARS-Scientist with Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) for several years. She joined KSU in 2011 to accept research and teaching responsibilities in Weed Physiology. Before coming to KSU, she has worked for several years as a Postdoctoral Research Associate at the University of Guelph in Canada. She has also received a Ph.D. from the University of Guelph in 2004 in Weed Science.
Research programs of the weed physiology laboratory in the Agronomy Department encompass weed problems in crop and rangeland systems emphasizing herbicide mode of action and fate of herbicides in plants and the environment. Specifically, the research is focused in the area of herbicide resistance including mechanisms and inheritance of herbicide resistance in weeds, the effect of elevated temperature on herbicide efficacy and identification of sources of herbicide tolerance in crops.
Since childhood, Mithila has been a nature lover especially intrigued to know how plants can do some processes that are not possible by animals and hence she chose a career in plant science. She considers herself very fortunate to have had several opportunities to explore some intricate details of plant growth and development and also interact with eminent scientists in this exciting field.
- Ph.D. Weed Science, University of Guelph, Canada
- M.S. Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
- B.S. Agriculture, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, India
Although, Jugulam does not have an official extension appointment; she enjoyed participating in the following extension related activities at KSU:
- Guest lecture on ‘Mechanism of Resistance in Herbicide-Resistant Weeds: Agronomy in-depth training for Kansas State Extension Agents, Kansas State University. January 2012.
- KSRE Publications on:
- Interviewed for a Canadian Crop Magazine
- Radio interview on “Glyphosate-Resistant Kochia”- KRVN, Rural Radio Network, NE.
- Smokey Hill’s Public Television Program on Weed Science. January 2013
Note: My family name is Jugulam and my given name is Mithila. However, some of my publications are listed as given name followed by initial of the family name.
*Graduate Student or Postdoctoral Fellows of Jugulam.
- Pettinga DJ, *Ou J, Patterson EL, Jugulam M, Westra P and Gaines TA. 2017. Increased Chalcone Synthase (CHS) expression is associated with dicamba resistance in Kochia scoparia. Pest Manag. Sci. In press (KAES # 18-154-J).
- Tehranchian, P, Nandula V, Jugulam M, *Putta K and Jasieniuk M. 2017. Multiple resistance to glyphosate, paraquat and ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in Italian ryegrass populations from California: Confirmation and mechanisms of resistance. Pest Manag. Sci. In press. (KAES # 18-156-J).
- Jugulam M and Gill BS. 2017. Molecular cytogenetics to unravel mechanisms of gene duplication in pesticide resistance. Pest Manag. Sci. DOI: 10.1002/ps.4665. (KAES # 17-230-J).
- Molin W, Wright A, VanGessel M, McCloskey W, Jugulam M and Hoagland R. 2017. Survey of the genomic landscape surrounding the EPSPS gene in glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus palmeri from geographically distant populations in the United States. Pest Manag. Sci. DOI: 10.1002/ps.4659. (KAES # 17-352-J).
- *Nakka S, Thompson CR, Peterson DE and Jugulam M. 2017. Target-site and non-target-site based resistance to ALS-inhibitors in Plamer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri). Weed Sci.https://doi.org/10.1017/wsc.2017.43. (KAES # 17-231-J).
- *Ganie ZA, Jugulam M, and Jhala AJ. 2017. Temperature influences efficacy, absorption, and translocation of 2,4-D or glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida). Weed Sci. 65(5):588-602.
- *Ganie ZA, Jugulam M, *Varanasi VK, and Jhala AJ. 2017. Investigating mechanism of glyphosate resistance in a common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) biotype from Nebraska. Can J of Plant Sci. https://doi.org/10.1139/CJPS-2017-0036. (KAES # 16-370-J).
- *Nakka S, Godar AS, Thompson CR, Peterson DE and Jugulam M. 2017. Atrazine resistance in Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) endowed by rapid detoxification via GST-conjugation and inherited through a nuclear gene. Pest. Manag. Sci. doi:10.1002/ps.4615 (KAES # 17-023-J).
- *Dillon AJ, *Varanasi VK, Danilova T, Koo D-H, *Nakka S, Peterson DE, Tranel P, Friebe B, Gill BS and Jugulam M. 2017. Physical mapping of amplified copies of the EPSPS gene in glyphosate-resistant Amaranthus tuberculatus. Plant Physiology. 173: 1226-1234 (KAES # 17-015-J).
- *Nakka S, Godar AS, Wani PS, Thompson CR, Peterson DE, Roelofs J and Jugulam M. 2017. Physiological and molecular characterization of hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibitor resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S.Wats.). Front. Plant Sci. | doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00555 (KAES # 16-345-J).
- *Varanasi VK, Bayromov S, Prasad PVV and Jugulam M. 2017. Expression profiles of psbA, ALS, EPSPS and other chloroplastic genes in response to PSII-, ALS-, and EPSPS-Inhibitor treatments in Kochia scoparia. American J of Plant Sci. 8:451-470 (KAES # 16-370-J).
- *Ganie ZA, Lindquist L, Kruger GR, Jugulam M, Marx DB and Jhala AJ. 2017. An integrated approach to control glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) with preplant tillage and herbicides in glyphosate-resistant corn. Weed Research. 57:112-122 (KAES # 17-241-J). (IF 1.9)
- *Ou J, P.W. Stahlman and Jugulam M. 2016: Reduced Absorption of Glyphosate and Decreased Translocation of Dicamba Contribute to Poor Control of Kochia (Kochia scoparia) at High Temperature. Pest Manag. Sci. DOI 10.1002/ps.4463. (KAES # 16-267-J)
- Chahal PS, Varanasi VK, JugulamM and A Jhala. 2016. Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Nebraska: Confirmation, EPSPS Gene Amplification, and Response to POST Corn and Soybean Herbicides. Weed Tech. 31:80-93 (KAES # 17-078-J)
- Jugulam M and Dillon AJ. 2016. Genomic Distribution of EPSPS copies conferring glyphosate resistance in Palmer amaranth and kochia. Indian J of Weed Sci. (KAES # 17-237-J). 48: 132-135.
- *Varanasi VK, Godar AS, Shoup D, Peterson DE and Jugulam M. 2016. A Target-Site Point Mutation in Henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L.) Conferring High Level Resistance to ALS-Inhibitors. Weed Science. 64:231-239 (KAES # 16-041-J).
- *Dillon AJ, Kron P, Walsh M and Jugulam M. 2016. Transfer of 2, 4-D-Tolerance from Raphanus raphanistrum into Brassica napus: Production of F1 Hybrids through Embryo Rescue. Canadian Jour of Plant Sci. 96: 384-386) (KAES # 15-382-J).
- Ganie ZA, Lindquist L, Kruger GR, Jugulam M, Marx DB and Jhala AJ. 2016. Integrated management of glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) with tillage and herbicides in soybean. Weed Technology. 30:45-56 KAES # 16-040-J).
- *Varanasi A, Prasad PVV and Jugulam M. 2016. Impact of climate change factors on weeds and herbicide efficacy. Advances in Agronomy. 135: 107-146 (KAES # 15-191-J).
- Jugulam M, Ziauddin A, So KKY, Chen S and Hall JC. 2015. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Bassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.PLoS ONE 10(11): e0141418. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141418 (KAES # 15-098-J).
- *Godar AS, *Varanasi VK, Betha S, Prasad PVV, Thompson CR and Mithila J. 2015. Physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms of differential sensitivity of Palmer amaranth to mesotrione at varying temperatures. PLoS ONE 10(5): e0126731. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0126731(KAES # 15-383-J).
- *Varanasi VK, *Godar AS, Currie RS, Dille JA, Thompson CR, Stahlman PW and Jugulam M.2015. Field-evolved resistance to four modes of action of herbicides in a single kochia (Kochia scoparia Schrad) population. Pest Management Science. doi: 10.1002/ps.4034 (KAES # 15-097-J).
- Chatham LA, Bradley KW, Kruger GR, Martin JR, Micheal JR, Owen DK, Peterson DE, Mithila J and Tranel PJ. 2015. A multi-state study of the association between glyphosate resistance and EPSPS gene amplification in waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus). Weed Science 63: 569-577 (KAES # 16-039-J).
- Godar AS, Stahlman PW, Jugulam M and Dille JA. 2015. Glyphosate-resistant Kochia in Kansas: EPSPS gene copy number in relation to resistance levels. Weed Science: 63: 587-595.
- Jugulam M, *Niehues K, *Godar AS, Koo D-H, Danilova T, Friebe B, Sehgal S, Varanasi VK, Wiersma A, Westra P, Stahlman PW and Gill BS. 2014. Tandem amplification of a chromosomal segment harboring EPSPS locus confers glyphosate resistance in Kochia scoparia. Plant Physiology; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.114.242826 (KAES # 14-330-J).
- Jugulam M, Walsh M and Hall JC. 2014. Introgression of phenoxy herbicide resistance from Raphanus raphanistrum to Raphanus sativus. Plant Breeding. 133:489-492 (KAES # 14-087-J).
- Mithila J and *Godar AS. 2013. Understanding genetics of herbicide resistance in weeds- implications for weed management. Advances in Crop Science and Technology. doi: 10.4172/2329-8863.1000115 (KAES # 14-108-J).
- Mithila J, DiMeo N, Veldhuis LJ, Walsh M and Hall JC. 2013. Investigation of MCPA (4-chloro-2-ethylphenoxyacetate) resistance in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 61- 12516-12521(KAES # 14-087-J).
- Mithila J and Hall JC. 2013. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from Brassica kaber to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa through embryo rescue. In Vitro Cellular and Development Biology-Plant. 49 (4): 461-467 (KAES # 13-060-J).
- Mithila J and Hall JC. 2012. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) to radish (Raphanus sativus) through embryo rescue. Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 7 (1): 29-3(KAES # 12-448-J). 3 .
- Mithila J, McLean MD, Chen S and Hall JC. 2012. Development of near-isogenic lines and identification of markers linked to auxinic herbicide resistance in wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.). Pest Management Science. 68: 548-556.
1997 to 2011
- Mithila J, Hall JC, Johnson WG, Kelley KB and Riechers DE. 2011. Evolution of resistance to auxinic herbicides: Historical perspectives, mechanisms of resistance, and implications for broadleaf weed management in agronomic crops. Weed Science. 59: 445-457.
- Mithila J, Swanton CJ, Blackshaw RE, Cathcart RJ and Hall JC. 2008. Physiological basis for reduced glyphosate efficacy on weeds grown under low soil nitrogen. Weed Science. 56: 12-17.
- Mithila J and Hall JC. 2007. Production of an auxinic herbicide-resistant microspore- derived haploid wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) plant. Crop Protection. 27: 357-362.
- Mithila J and Hall JC. 2005. Comparison of ABP1 over-expressing Arabidopsis and under-expressing tobacco with an auxinic herbicide-resistant wild mustard (Brassica kaber) biotype. Plant Science. 169: 21-28.
- Mithila J, McLean MD and Hall JC. 2005. Inheritance of picloram and 2, 4-D resistance in wild mustard (Brassica kaber). Weed Science. 53: 417-423.
- Jugulam M, Hall JC, Victor JMR and Saxena PK. 2003. Thidiazuron induces shoot organogenesis at low concentrations and somatic embryogenesis at high concentrations on leaf and petiole explants of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). Plant Cell Reports. 21: 408-414.
- Mithila J and Hall JC. 2002. In vitro approaches to understand the mechanism of auxinic herbicide resistance in wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.). Proceeding of the CWSS (Canadian Weed Science Society), National Meeting, Saskatoon, SK. Canada. pp: 25-28.
- Mithila J, Murch SJ, KrishnaRaj S and Saxena PK. 2001. Recent advances in pelargonium in vitro regeneration systems. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture. 67: 1-9.
- Shivashankara KS, Mithila J and Maiti S. 2000. Effect of different light intensities on growth and yield of various betelvine (Piper betle) varieties. Journal of Plantation Crops. 28: 196- 200. (IF NA)
- Mithila J, Shivashankara KS and Maiti S. 2000. Growth and morphology of vegetative and reproductive branches in betelvine (Piper betle). Journal of Plantation Crops. 28: 50- 54.
- Shivashankara KS, Mithila J and Maiti S. 2000. A new method for vegetative multiplication of betelvine. Journal of Plantation Crops. 28: 94-98.
- Maiti S, Nikhil K, Shivashankara KS, Pandey S, Mishra SK and Mithila J.1999. Biochemical constituents of fruits and seeds of betelvine (Piper betle). Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Sciences. 21: 654-657.
- Mithila J and Maiti S. 1997. Determination of agamospermy in betelvine (Piper betle) Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 67: 89-91.
Book Editor and Contribution to Chapters (6)
- Jugulam M“Biology, physiology and molecular biology of weeds” Ed. CRC Press (completed and the book is in press) (KAES # 17-238-B).
- *Varanasi A and Jugulam M. Advancement of weed science as an important discipline of agriculture. In “Biology, physiology and molecular biology of weeds” Ed. M Jugulam, CRC Press (in press) (KAES # 17-239-B).
- Jugulam M, *Putta K, *Varanasi VK and Koo D-H.Agene amplification and herbicide resistance: Application of molecular cytogenetic tools. In “Biology, physiology and molecular biology of weeds” Ed. M Jugulam, CRC Press (in press) (KAES # 17-240-B).
- Jugulam M, *Varanasi A, *Varanasi VK and Prasad PVV. Climate Change Influence on Herbicide Efficacy and Weed Management. In “Climate change and food security in 21 century” Eds. Yadav SS and Redden R. Wiley – Blackwell, International, USA (invited; in review)
- Chahal PS, Aulakh J, Jugulam M and Jhala, AJ. Herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth in the United States: Impact, mechanism of resistance, and management. In Price AJ, Kelton JA and Sarunaite L (eds.) Herbicides, Agronomic Crops and Weed Biology. In Tech Scientific Publisher, NY. ISBN 978-953-51-2218-0. DOI: 10.5772/61512 (KAES #16-038-B).
- Mithila J,Murch SJ, KrishnaRaj S, Sullivan JA and Saxena PK. 2003. Recent advances in regeneration and transformation of Geraniums (Pelargoniums sp). In: Plant Genetic Engineering Vol. 3: Improvement of Commercial Crops. Eds: Singh, R.P., and Jaiwal, P.K. pp: 180-195.
Extension publications (2):
- Peterson DE, Thompson R, Shoup DE and Jugulam M. 2015. Mode of action of herbicides. KSRE Publication #C715 (http://www.bookstore.ksre.ksu.edu/pubs/C715.pdf).
- Peterson DE, Currie R, Dille JA, Falk J, Geier P, Jugulam M, Shoup D, Stahlman PW and Thompson C. 2013. Glyphosate Stewardship. KSRE Publication #MF2767 (http://www.bookstore.ksre.ksu.edu/pubs/MF2767.pdf).
Other Refereed Contributions & Conference Proceedings
- Mithila Jand Hall JC. 2002.In vitro approaches to understanding the mechanism of auxinic herbicide resistance in wild mustard (Sinapis arvensisL.). Proceeding of the CWSS (Canadian Weed Science Society), National Meeting, Saskatoon, SK. Canada. pp: 25-28.
Use of herbicides is an integral part of modern agriculture. However, extensive and repeated use of herbicides causes weeds to evolve resistance to herbicides, a challenging constraint of crop production for growers, weed scientists, and the agri-chemical industry. One of the major areas of my research at Kansas State University includes investigation of mechanisms of weed resistance to herbicides. I have worked tirelessly and diligently to develop and establish research to uncover the physiological, genetic and molecular mechanisms of weed resistance to herbicides. The other areas of my research focus on assessing the optimum time for applying herbicides for improved weed control and on developing herbicide-tolerant crop technology.
Significant findings of my research program:
Physical mapping of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant weeds:
Recent rapid evolution and spread of resistance to the most extensively used herbicide, glyphosate, is a major threat to global crop production. Genetic mechanisms by which weeds evolve resistance to herbicides largely determine the level of resistance, and the rate of evolution resistance. We determined that glyphosate resistance in kochia, Palmer amaranth and waterhemp is due to the amplification of EPSPS gene, the enzyme target of glyphosate. In this research, we investigated the genomic organization of the amplified EPSPS copies using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and extended DNA fiber (Fiber FISH) on chromosomes of these weeds. We showed that the copies of the EPSPS gene are arranged in a tandem configuration in glyphosate-resistant kochia and an extra chromosome carrying the EPSPS copies in waterhmep. These are the first reports of physical mapping of herbicide target genes conferring field-evolved herbicide resistance in kochia and waterhemp.
Understand physiological, genetic and molecular mechanisms of herbicide resistance in weeds:
Glyphosate, atrazine, ALS-, pigment-inhibitors and auxinic herbicides are widely used in crops across the US including Kansas. As a result of herbicide selection, several weeds have evolved resistances to these herbicides. We investigated the mechanisms of herbicide resistance in wild radish, Palmer amaranth and kochia. The results suggest that glyphosate and auxinic herbicide resistance is controlled by a single nuclear gene in kochia and wild radish, respectively. A single gene trait spreads much faster in a population than multiple gene traits. This information is valuable to suggest alternative weed management strategies to producers. Our lab also determined for the first time the mechanisms of resistances to atrazine and mesotrione in Palmer amaranth. Furthermore, we also characterized kochia biotypes with multiple herbicide resistance. Additionally, we have also investigated the first case of 2,4-D resistance in waterhemp.
Effect of elevated temperature on herbicide efficacy:
We found that efficacy of mesotrione, glyphosate, and dicamba is reduced under high growth temperatures in Palmer amaranth, and kochia. The findings call for further investigation of physiological interactions of HPPD-inhibiting herbicides and other weeds under fluctuating growing temperatures; for improving herbicide efficacy, preventing weed control failures, and delaying herbicide resistance. The outcome of this investigation has several implications for weed management in agriculture. For example, if mesotrione is applied under high-temperature conditions, it may result in poor control of Palmer amaranth and/or possibly warrants higher use rates of herbicide incurring higher costs towards weed control.
Development of herbicide-tolerant crops:
Development of herbicide-tolerant crops is valuable for effective weed control and rotating herbicides. Specifically, one of the major challenges in grain sorghum production is a lack of POST emergence weed control options. HPPD-inhibitors offer an option to manage w a de spectrum of weeds. However these herbicides are not registered for us in grain sorghum. We identified sources of tolerance to HPPD-inhibitors in sorghum germplasm collection. Our group also successfully transferred herbicide tolerant traits from weed species to crops using biotechnological approches.
Teaching responsibilities include graduate and undergraduate courses in weed physiology.
- AGRON 822: Herbicide Interactions- graduate course
- AGRON/ENTOM/PLPTH 732: Introduction to Plant Resistance to Pests - inter-disciplinary graduate/undergraduate course
- AGRON 600 (Topics): Crop and Weed Resistance to Herbicides-graduate/undergraduate course
Students and Staff
Postdoctoral Fellows and Visiting Scholars:
- Dr. A. R. Vennapusa
- Dr. Aruna Varanasi
- Dr. Vijaya Varanasi
- Dr. Shahniyar Bayramov
- Dr. Amar S Godar
- Dr. J. Ou
- Dr. S. Mallubhotla
- Chandrima Shyam
- Balaji Aravindhan Pandian
- Ivan Cuvaca
- Junjun Ou
- Karthik Putta
- Seth Menzer
- Sridevi Nakka
- A. J. Dillon
- R. DeGreeff
- K. Myeres
- Abigail Friesen
- Dakota Came
- Jessica Bramhall
- Andrew Scherrer
- Trent Newell